Color: Heartwood is mostly reddish brown; sapwood is generally pale white.
Grain: Mostly closed, straight grain; fine, uniform texture. Coarser than European Beech.
Species & Grade Variations: Only one species is native to the United States. Moderate to high color variation between boards.
Hardness (Janka): 1300; 1% harder than Northern Red Oak.
Dimensional Stability: Below average (change coefficient .00431; 17% less stable than Red Oak).
Durability: Elastic, hard; excellent shock resistance. Wears well and stays smooth when subjected to friction — popular for factory floors.
Sawing/Machining: Difficult to work with hand tools, but good machining qualities.
Sanding: Sands satisfactorily.
Nailing: Good holding ability, but has a tendency to split.
Finishing: No known problems.
(Relative to plain sawn select Red Oak)